Según la juez, los miembros de la Patrulla X no son humano

Pues lo siento niños y niñas, pero eso es lo que hay. Al menos, nos queda la satisfacción de que al fin se ha resuelto el misterio. La juez Judith Barzilay tomó esa decisión en esta sentencia del 3 de enero. Tampoco son humanos los enemigos de Spider-Man, ni, por cierto, Mr. Fantástico o Silver Surfer (entre otros).

Y se preguntarán ustedes, ¿por qué un tribunal ha tenido que decidir semejante cosa? Pues bien, todo está relacionado con una disputa aduanera entre una subsidiaria de Marvel y el servicio de aduanas de Estados Unidos. A mediados de los noventa, aparentemente pagabas más por importar juguetes que eran «dolls» que por juguetes que eran «toys». Si la figura representa un ser humano, entonces es «doll», en caso contrario, es un «toy». Como Marvel quería pagar menos, pues argumentó que eran «toys» y ahora le han dado la razón.

Aquí está el núcleo de la decisión:

Whatever the degree is to which they resemble human beings, the court finds that these action figures do not represent human beings and are therefore not properly classifiable as «dolls» under HTSUS heading 9502. The court bases its finding on at least three observations. First, most of the figures at issue exhibit at least one non-human characteristic. The court does not agree with Customs that the few non-human characteristics the figures possess, such as claws or robotic eyes, «fall far short of transforming [these figures] into something other than the human beings which they represent» because the issue under the HTSUS is not a straight headcount of the human features a figure may possess, rather the issue is whether the figure as a whole and in a wider context represents a human being. . . . Moreover, under the more restrictive «dolls» provision of the HTSUS, even one non-human feature the figure possesses prohibits its classification as a «doll.»

Second, these Marvel characters are known in popular culture as «mutants.» That fact further informs their classification. Cf., e.g., HQ 950200 (Dec. 18, 1991) (Customs recognizing that some knowledge from popular culture is necessary to identify certain figures, such as angels, devils, monsters, as «non-human»). They are more than (or different than) humans. These fabulous characters use their extraordinary and unnatural physical and psychic powers on the side of either good or evil. The figures’ shapes and features, as well as their costumes and accessories, are designed to communicate such powers. . . .

Third, the «X-Men» figures are marketed and packaged as «mutants» or «people born with ‘x-tra’ power.» That they are denoted as such by the manufacturer or the importer lends further credence to the assertion that they represent creatures other than (or more than) human beings. . . . For all the foregoing reasons, the «X-Men» and «X-Force» figures considered are not properly classifiable as «dolls» under HTSUS heading 9502. If these figures are not «dolls» under HTSUS heading 9502, then they must fall into the category of «other toys» under HTSUS heading 9503.

Daniel Weiner comenta además que, curiosamente, el gobierno defendía la humanidad de los miembros de la Patrulla X. Quién lo iba a decir.

(vía The Volokh Conspiracy).

Categoría: Silva

Pedro Jorge Romero

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